Giving below only the definitions of Lokpal and Use of Terms of UNCAC. The scope of UNCAC is surely far and wide than Lokpal. Once UNCAC is ratified the power to arrest the corruption is more effective than Lokpal. Lokpal basically can dig out the past corruption cases whereas UNCAC has the singular capability to prevent corruption.
However I am in full support of Anna Hazare on his endeavor to enact Lokpal Bill. The announcement by PM Manmohan SIngh on 21st April 2011 to ratify UNCAC is a welcome step in the right direction. Please also see the video on the scam levels here in India that the video calls the country as ‘Indian Republic of Scams’, as provided by IAC – India Against Corruption, a group of eminent men and women of India who have taken a lead in eradication of corruption.
[State Party in this context is India]
2. Definitions:- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(1) “Action” means any action taken by a public servant in the discharge of his functions as such public servant and includes decision, recommendation or finding or in any other manner and includes willful failure or omission to act and all other expressions relating to such action shall be construed accordingly;
(2) “Allegation” in relation to a public servant includes any affirmation that such public servant-
(a) has indulged in misconduct, if he is a government servant;
(b) has indulged in corruption
(3) “complaint” includes any grievance or allegation or a request by whistleblower for protection and appropriate action.
(4) “corruption” includes anything made punishable under Chapter IX of the Indian Penal Code or under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988;
(5) “Government” or “Central Government” means Government of India.
(6) “Government Servant” means any person who is or was any time appointed to a civil service or post in connection with the affairs of the Central Government or High Courts or Supreme Court either on deputation or permanent or temporary or on contractual employment but would not include the judges.
(7) “grievance” means a claim by a person that he sustained injustice or undue hardship in consequence of mal-administration;
(8) “Lokpal” means
a. Benches constituted under this Act and performing their functions as laid down under various provisions of this Act; or
b. Any officer or employee, exercising its powers and carrying out its functions and responsibilities, in the manner and to the extent, assigned to it under this Act, or under various rules, regulations or orders made under various provisions of this Act.
c. For all other purposes, the Chairperson and members acting collectively as a body;
(9) “Mal-administration” means action taken or purporting to have been taken in the exercise of administrative function in any case where,-
a. such action or the administrative procedure or practice governing such action is unreasonable, unjust, oppressive or improperly discriminatory; or
b. there has been willful negligence or undue delay in taking such action or the administrative procedure or practice governing such action involves undue delay;
(10) “Misconduct” means misconduct as defined in CCS Conduct Rules and which has vigilance angle.
(11) “public authority” means any authority or body or institution of self- government established or constituted—
a. by or under the Constitution;
b. by any other law made by Parliament;
c. by notification issued or order made by the Government, and includes any body owned, controlled or substantially financed by the Government;
(12) “Public servant” means a person who is or was at any time,-
(a) the Prime Minister;
(b) a Minister;
(c) a Member of Parliament;
(d) Judges of High Courts and Supreme Court;
(e) a Government servant;
(f) the Chairman or Vice-Chairman (by whatever name called) or a member of a local authority in the control of the Central Government or a statutory body or corporation established by or under any law of the Parliament of India, including a co-operative society, or a Government Company within the meaning of section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 and members of any Committee or Board, statutory or nonstatutory, constituted by the Government;
(g) Such other authorities as the Central Government may, by notification, from time to time, specify;
(13) “Vigilance angle” includes –
(a) All acts of corruption
(b) Gross or willful negligence; recklessness in decision making; blatant violations of systems and procedures; exercise of discretion in excess, where no ostensible/public interest is evident; failure to keep the controlling authority/superiors informed in time
(c) Failure/delay in taking action, if under law the government servant ought to do so, against subordinates on complaints of corruption or dereliction of duties or abuse of office by the subordinates
(d) Indulging in discrimination through one’s conduct, directly or indirectly.
(e) Victimizing Whistle Blowers
(f) Any undue/unjustified delay in the disposal of a case, perceived after considering all relevant factors, would reinforce a conclusion as to the presence of vigilance angle in a case.
(h) Any other matter as notified from time to time by Lokpal
(14) Make unfair investigation or enquiry to either unduly help culprits or fabricate the innocent.
(15) “Whistleblower” is any person who faces threat of (1) professional harm, including but not limited to illegitimate transfers, denial of promotions, denial of appropriate perks, departmental proceedings, discrimination or (2) physical harm or (3) is actually subjected to such harm; because of either making a complaint to Lokpal under this Act or for filing an application under Right to Information Act.
Article 2. Use of terms
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) “Public official” shall mean: (i) any person holding a legislative, executive, administrative or judicial office of a State Party, whether appointed or elected, whether permanent or temporary, whether paid or unpaid, irrespective of that person’s seniority; (ii) any other person who performs a public function, including for a public agency or public enterprise, or provides a public service, as defined in the domestic law of the State Party and as applied in the pertinent area of law of that State Party; (iii) any other person defined as a “public of every kind, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible, and legal documents or instruments evidencing title to or interest in such assets;
(e) “Proceeds of crime” shall mean any property derived from or obtained, directly or indirectly, through the commission of an offence;
(f) “Freezing” or “seizure” shall mean temporarily prohibiting the transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property or temporarily assuming custody or control of property on the basis of an order issued by a court or other competent authority;
(g) “Confiscation”, which includes forfeiture where applicable, shall mean the permanent deprivation of property by order of a court or other competent authority;
(h) “Predicate offence” shall mean any offence as a result of which proceeds have been generated that may become the subject of an offence as defined in article 23 [Article 23. Laundering of proceeds of crime] of this Convention;
(i) “Controlled delivery” shall mean the technique of allowing illicit or suspect consignments to pass out of, through or into the territory of one or more States, with the knowledge and under the supervision of their competent authorities, with a view to the investigation of an offence and the identification of persons involved in the commission of the offence.